being aware of: everything that goes around the car, other vehicles and pedestrians and their movements, riders' and drivers' signals, road and weather conditions, road markings, signs and layouts.
knowing how to observe by: using scanning techniques, keeping the eyes moving, reading the road ahead, changing focus between the far distance, middle distance and close up.
realising the importance of: blind spots and compensating for them, eye contact with others, effective use of all the mirrors, visual clues (tell-tale signs, such as feet under cars and reflections in car and shop windows).
preparing for situations - asking 'What if?' when seeing a potential hazard
preparing to respond safely before the event - not reacting as it happens
recognising as early as possible the potential for situations to become dangerous
scanning all around while planning the response that might be needed.
3) Decision - making
This could mean
changing speed - slowing down, speeding up, stopping, moving off
This will always require
correct signalling ( this should not be automatic but as a result of a conscious decision), to advise others of your intentions, to help other road users assess situations
maintaining control of the vehicle, which includes - ensuring a safe following (separation) distance to deal with unexpected developments, achieving a safe speed for the road and weather/traffic conditions
continual reassessment of developing situations
Positive Driving - Attitude
responsible for the vehicle - checking the vehicle is roadworthy, keeping windscreen and windows clean, planning routes to avoid congestion on the road
taking responsibility for the driver's safety and that of others by adopting an accident-avoidance approach to driving
accepting your own mistakes and those of others, and learning from them
driver's responsibility for own fitness to drive - recognising fatigue, planning and taking breaks, not driving whilst under the influence of drink and drugs
2) Care and Consideration
being aware that other road users make mistakes and allowing for them
recognising vulnerable road users and the associated hazards - older pedestrians, children, cyclists and motorcyclists, people with disabilities
maintaining constant alertness
being aware of the risks of boredom and drowsiness on longer journeys, and knowing how to avoid or alleviate them
being aware of potential hazards and taking steps to minimise the danger